The following is a transcription of a discourse delivered by Śrīla Bhaktivedānta Nārāyaṇa Mahārāja in Penang, Malaysia, on April 18, 2005


(On April 18, 2005, Śrīla Bhaktivedānta Nārāyaṇa Mahārāja celebrated Lord Rāmacandra’s appearance day during his short visit to Penang. The following, spoken at the house of Parameśvarī Prabhu and Mālatī dāsī, is the first-time-published transcription of that discourse. There was a small group of disciples present.)

We must be one-pointed to Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa, not to any other. Do you understand? Why then are we worshipping Lord Rāmacandra? Someone may say, “This is not one-pointed.” But that is not the fact. Śrī Kṛṣṇa is akhila-rasāmṛta-sindhu. He is the enjoyer of all rasas: dāsya (servitude), sakhya (friendship), vātsalya (parental affection) and mādhurya (conjugal love); and in aiśvarya-mayī prema-sevā (service in awe and reverence, or with the idea that Kṛṣṇa is God) and mādhurya-mayī prema-sevā (service in spontaneous love, thinking of Kṛṣṇa in an ordinary, human-like relationship). He is the enjoyer of all.

Sometimes, to enjoy maryādā-mayī rasa-bhakti (devotion in awe and reverence, following the principles of etiquette), Śrī Kṛṣṇa comes in the form of Lord Rāma, and Śrīmatī Rādhikā comes in the form of Śrī Sītā-devī. Therefore, Rādhā-Kṛṣṇa and Sītā-Rāma are non-different. If you worship Lord Rāma, you are worshipping Lord Kṛṣṇa Himself. Sometimes Kṛṣṇa wants to enjoy vībhatsa-rasa, (ghastly rasa) killing the demon Hiraṇyakaśipu and protecting his devotee Prahlāda. Thus, Śrī Nṛsiṁhadeva is also Lord Kṛṣṇa.

Śrīla Jayadeva Gosvāmī has sung in his kīrtana [Daśāvatāra-stotram]:

keśava! dhṛta-mīna-śarīra!

“O Keśava!* O You who assume the form of a fish [Matsya]!”

keśava! dhṛta-kūrma-śarīra!

“O Keśava! O You who assume the form of a tortoise [Kūrma]!”

keśava! dhṛta-śūkara-rūpa!

“O Keśava! O You who assume the form of a boar [Varāha]!”

keśava! dhṛta-narahari-rūpa!

“O Keśava! O You who assume the form of half-man, half-lion [Nṛsiṁha]!”

keśava! dhṛta-vāmana-rūpa!

“O Keśava! O You who assume the form of a dwarf brāhmaṇa [Vāmana]!”

keśava! dhṛta-bhṛgu-pati-rūpa!

“O Keśava! O You who assume the form of the Lord of Bhṛghus [Paraśurāma]!”

keśava! dhṛta-rāma-śarīra!

“O Keśava! O You who assume the form of Rāmacandra!”

keśava! dhṛta-haladhara-rūpa!

“O Keśava! O You who assume the form of the wielder of the plough [Balarāma]!”

keśava! dhṛta-buddha-śarīra!

“O Keśava! O You who assume the form of Buddha!”

keśava! dhṛta-kalki-śarīra! Jaya jagadīśa! hare

“O Keśava! O You who assume the form of Kalki! O Lord of the universe! All glories to You!”

Thus, Lord Kṛṣṇa appears in many different forms.

In Vraja He enjoys śānta-rasa, dāsya-rasa, sakhya, vātsalya and mādhurya-rasa. In mādhurya-rasa there are 360 principle moods. It is not that all gopīs are in one mood. These 360 types of sakhīs are nothing but the bodily manifestations (kāyavyūha) of Śrīmatī Rādhikā. Each of Rādhikā’s moods becomes one sakhī, and Śrī Kṛṣṇa enjoys them all.

To fulfil one of His desires, Kṛṣṇa takes the form of Lord Rāma, with Śrīmatī Rādhikā in the form of Sītā-devī. Thus, when we worship Lord Rāma we should not think that we are not one-pointed in worshipping Śrī Śrī Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa. As Lord Rāma, Śrī Kṛṣṇa made His pastimes so heart-wrenching that a person will weep by hearing them.

When Lord Rāma was born, His three manifestations were with Him: Bharata, Lakṣmaṇa and Śatrughna. They are non-different from Him. To show how to serve Himself, Rāma came in the form of Bharata, Śatrughna and Lakṣmaṇa.

Lord Rāma’s father Dāsaratha Mahārāja had more than one thousand queens, and 360 were prominent, but he had no son. Somehow, with the help of Śṛṅga Ṛṣi, he performed a son-giving fire sacrifice and then his four sons were born.

Before this, Dāsaratha Mahārāja once went out hunting, and that night he went to the nearby house of his friend Kaikeya Mahārāja. King Kaikeya had a daughter named Kaikeyī. Mahārāja Kaikeya told his daughter, “You should look after Dāsaratha Mahārāja’s prasādam and well-being.” She served in such a way that Mahārāja Dāsaratha was very satisfied with her service, and he became attracted to her beauty and qualities. The next morning, before returning to Ayodhyā, he told the king, “I want something. Please give me a donation.”

Kaikeya Mahārāja asked, “What donation do you want?”

Dāsaratha Mahārāja replied, “I want your daughter. She is very qualified, and I want to marry her.”

King Kaikeya began to laugh. He rejected Dāsaratha Mahārāja’s proposal, saying “I cannot give my daughter to you.”

Dāsaratha Mahārāja questioned, “Why?”

King Kaikeya replied, “You have so many queens! I will marry my daughter only to that person whose son will be the king. If you want to marry her, you must promise that the son born from her womb will be king. Only then will I give her to you in marriage.”

Now Dāsaratha Mahārāja began to laugh. He said, “I have no child. If your daughter can give me a son I will be very fortunate, and he will automatically be the king.”

Thus, Kaikeyī was married to Mahārāja Dāsaratha.

By fortune, by the power of the child-giving fire sacrifice, Dāsaratha Mahārāja soon had four sons. First Rāma was born from Kauśalyā, then Bharata from Kaikeyī, and then Lakṣmaṇa and Śatrughna from Sumitrā. In Indian culture, only the eldest son will be the king. Mahārāja Dāsaratha was now in a dilemma regarding what to do.

When they were old enough, Rāma and His brothers went to the school of Vasiṣṭha Muni. There they learned everything required, and then they returned to their father’s house.

One day Lord Rāma was playing in the lap of Mother Kaikeyī. Kaikeyī loved Him more than she loved her own son Bharata, and Rāma always played in Kaikeyī’s lap, more so than he played with Kauśalyā. That day Lord Rāmacandra told Kaikeyī, “Mother, I want a boon from you.”

Kaikeyī asked, “What boon do you want?”

Lord Rāma replied, “If I ask, you must give it to Me. Do you promise?” She promised, saying, “I can even give my life for You.”

Lord Rāma replied, “I don’t want your life. I want you to tell Mahārāja Dāsaratha that your son Bharata should be king; and I, Rāma, should be exiled to the forest.”

Kaikeya said, “Oh, I cannot do this.”

Lord Rāma replied, “But you promised! If you do not fulfil my request, everything will be spoiled. I am telling you something very confidential. I am the Supreme Personality of Godhead. All the demigods, such as Lord Brahmā and Lord Śaṅkara, have prayed for Me to come and kill demons like Rāvaṇa and others. These demons are the burden of the Earth, and their destruction cannot be accomplished by anyone but Me.”

Kaikeyī then began to weep. She told Lord Rāma, “If I can give my life for You, I will do this for you.” This is why she asked for the two benedictions from Mahārāja Dāsaratha.

Gaura premānande!

Devotee: So Kaikeyī is the heroine of Rāmāyaṇa?

Śrīla Bhaktivedānta Nārāyaṇa Mahārāja: Yes, according to my opinion.

(After Śrīla Bhaktivedānta Nārāyaṇa Mahārāja’s talk, the devotees performed abhiṣeka of Lord Rāmacandra.)

* Keśava refers to Lord Kṛṣṇa in Vṛndāvana, who has fine hair and who decorates the hair of Śrīmatī  Rādhikā.


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Unless indicated differently, all verse translations and quotes are from the books by Śrīla Prabhupāda (

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